Waterloo business development region, on the West from Toronto, gathers 455 firms and uses 13 000 people. It is one of the most dynamic clusters of Canada and North America in the field of information and communication technologies. In his famous analyses, Michael Porter puts forward that the reason of clusters’ efficiency remains in the proximity of firms, which maintains intense collaboration and competition between them. But this is not the case in Waterloo: firms, even small ones, generally trade on a worldwide scale rather than a local one, and do not cooperate much. Allison Bramwell shows that the true reason of its success is the role played by the University of Waterloo, which created a highly attractive skills market and developed original links between business and academia.
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Bramwell, Allison, et Loïc Vieillard-Baron. 2007. L’université, clé de la compétitivité du cluster TIC de Waterloo. http://ecole.org/seminaires/FS4/SEM389.