International trade grows twice faster than regional economies. To be able to receive the biggest ships and to be competitive with the largest harbors of North Europe, the harbour of Le Havre launched the major construction site called “Port 2000” that began in 2001 and ended in 2005 with three miles of seawalls built and eventually more than 2.5 miles of quays. This operation has demanded ten years of studies and public discussions, and cost almost a billion euro. A wide debate made it the operation of the whole community of Le Havre. A policy fiercely preoccupied by environment, as well as by the socio-economical local context, transformed it into a true operation of lasting development. What is the history of this major project, and what is its impact on the city and the region, on their economic developments, and, more generally, on the place of France among the European ports?
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Scherrer, Paul, et Loïc Vieillard-Baron. 2005. Port 2000, Le Havre : le développement durable à grande échelle. http://ecole.org/seminaires/FS4/SEM229.